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First National Silviculture Workshop Proceedings

DoF 2017. Silviculture for Forest Management.Proceedings of the First National Silviculture Workshop,
Kathmandu, Nepal, 19-21 February 2017, Department of Forests, pp 540.

Abstract
The Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) of Nepal showed an increase in forest area by 5% between 20 years period from 1990. While various interpretations surround the reason behind this increment, there are, however, arguments regarding the lack of improvement in the overall quality and productivity of the forestland. The most dominant narrative behind the lack of forest quality enhancement is the protection oriented forest management practices that have not changed over the past couple of decades. Nevertheless, there have been several attempts towards implementing silvicultural management practices primarily aiming at enhancing quality and productivity of various types of forests in the Terai and hill districts. These practices however could not be expanded widely over the regions due mainly to differences in understanding the importance of silvicultural interventions and technical capacity, both on the part of the government as well as forest user groups to carry out the silvicultural operations.

Canopy Gaps and Regeneration Development in Pine and Sal Forests Silviculture Demonstration Plots in Midhills Nepal

Cedamon E, Paudel G, Bashyal M, Nuberg I, Paudel NS (2017), Canopy Gaps and Regeneration Development in Pine and Sal Forests Silviculture Demonstration Plots in Midhills Nepal. In S. Adhikari, R, Karki, A. Gurung, (eds), Proceedings of the First National Silviculture Workshop, Kathmandu, Nepal, 19-21 February, 2017, pp 156-161

Abstract
Silviculture demonstration plots were established in Kavre and Lamjung districts by the EnLiFT Project to examine stand response to selected silviculture system – uniform shelterwood, selection system, and negative thinning and as a showcase to forest users for these silviculture system. This paper analysis the extent of canopy gaps on these demo plots after silviculture treatments and regeneration development one-year after treatment. Using crown photographs, crown covers are estimated and compared between silviculture systems. The analysis have shown that rigid silviculture systems like shelterwood and selection system can create signifcant canopy gaps than negative thinning in pine plantations and that the rate of natural regeneration is directly related with the canopy gaps. In Sal-Katus-Chilaune forest however, negative thinning created canopy gaps larger than selection silviculture demo plots due to removal of 4-D trees, majority are Chilaune trees, which typically have large spreading crown. Although conclusion from the demo plots at this stage may be too early to make on regeneration growth and canopy gap relationship, it is clear that silviculture operations have signifcant role in promoting higher rate regeneration growth and that rigid silviculture operations like selection and shelterwood systems are better than current silviculture regime represented by negative thinning in this study.

Prospects of Application of Shelterwood System in Mature Pine Stands in the Hills of Kavre District

Paudel G, Kahanal PP, Edwin C, Bashyal M (2017), Prospects of Application of Shelterwood System in Mature Pine Stands in the Hills of Kavre District. In S. Adhikari, R, Karki, A. Gurung, (eds), Proceedings of the First National Silviculture Workshop, Kathmandu, Nepal, 19-21 February, 2017, pp 162-176.

Abstract
Nepal’s forestry has given little or no attention to initiate productive management of forests. Forestry practices dominated by protection-centric dogma provided incentives to passive management of forests. Communities (also state) suffer from such state of inaction(s) in forestry. Despite many benefits, silviculture system based forestry remains neglected. Amid rare experience of application of shelterwood system (SWS) in Nepal, we have analyzed the prospects of application of SWS in the hills of Nepal. This paper is based on the analysis of data from few demonstration plots in mature pine stands in Kavre district. The plots are established in mature pine plantations at rotation age. We applied SWS as a treatment in the demonstration plots and measured and compared the regeneration with the control plot. We demonstrate that SWS is applicable in mature pine plantations in the hills with some modification in felling pattern. We also evaluate the social and biophysical response to crown opening under SWS. We analyze and enlist the challenges and prospects of the application of SWS in the sloppy hills. Our findings suggest additional set of precautions, such as the grazing and forest fire control, should be taken while applying SWS in the hilly terrain.

Q-Factor is a Useful Guide for Selection Silviculture on Nepal’s Community Forests

Cedamon E, Paudel G, Bashyal M, Nuberg I, Shrestha KK (2017), Q-Factor is A Useful Guide for Selection Silviculture on Nepal’s Community Forests. In S. Adhikari, R, Karki, A. Gurung, (eds), Proceedings of the First National Silviculture Workshop, Kathmandu, Nepal, 19-21 February, 2017, pp 242-255

Abstract

There is growing interest by forest users, government forestry officers and policy makers on maximizing forest goods and livelihood provisions from community forestry in a sustainable manner. However the way several mature community forests are currently managed based on selection, e.g. negative thinning and crown thinning is questionable as it results to decline in forest stock, timber quality and regeneration. To assist forest users in managing their community forests, an action research has been implemented in Kavre and Lamjung to manage planted Pine (Pinus spp.) and naturally regenerated Sal (Shorea robusta) through selection system. This paper describes what is q-factor and its relevance for sustainable community forest management in Nepal. The simple guideline for selection system introduced to 30 community forest users groups in six sites are presented for wider adoption and policy recommendation

Towards Active Utilisation of Community Forestry: Silvo-Institutional Model for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal

Paudel NS, Shrestha KK, Ojha H, Karki R, Paudel G, Nuberg I, Cedamon E (2017), Towards Active Utilisation of Community Forestry: Silvo-Institutional Model for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal. In S. Adhikari, R, Karki, A. Gurung, (eds), Proceedings of the First National Silviculture Workshop, Kathmandu, Nepal, 19-21 February, 2017, pp 390-402

Abstract
This paper explains what we term the ‘silvo-institutional model’ for a more productive, sustainable and equitable management of community forests in Nepal. The paper draws on four years of action research in six research sites of Kavre and Lamjung districts, complemented by the review of silviculture-based forest management by Nepal government in various parts of the country. The findings indicate that first, early silviculture-based forest management initiatives have failed because they did not adequately considered the policy and institutional dimensions. Second, current initiatives, while looked promising for the active utilisation of community forests, have faced with complex regulatory and institutional barriers. We argue that a new ‘silvo-institutional model’ which combines technological and institutional dimensions, has a potential to increase the prospect of successful implementation of silvicultural-based forest management.

A Livelihood and Food Security Model of a Forest-Farm System

Cedamon E, Nuberg I, Lusiana B, Mulia R, Pandit B, Subedi YR, Shrestha K (2016), EnLiFT Model 1.0: A Livelihood and Food Security Model of a Forest-Farm System, In J. Meadows, S. Harrison, and J. Herbohn, (eds), Small-scale and Community Forestry and the Changing Nature of Forest Landscapes, Proceedings from the IUFRO Research Group 3.08 Small-scale Forestry Conference held on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia, 11 – 15 October, 2015, pp 23-42

Abstract
This paper presents the concept, specification and calibration of a systems model for temporal simulation of a forest-farm livelihood system. The model has been developed to examine the level of food security of the forest-farm livelihood system in Nepal and to identify interventions to increase household income and food security. The model framework consists of five modules: annual crops, tree and understorey, livestock, community forest and Food Security Index. The household activities are categorized into the four aspects of food security: availability, access, use, and stability of supply. The model can be applied over 6 household types based on caste and wealth. This typology was derived from cluster analysis of data from a survey of 668 households in 6 villages in 2 mid-hill districts. An example is presented from simulation runs of one type of household – a capital-rich Janajati household for four selected agroforestry production scenarios. The simulation experiment reveals strong relative significance of the tree-understory module on household food security and the crucial importance of off-farm income and remittances from overseas.

Removing Barriers to the Commercialisation of Agroforestry Trees in Nepal

Amatya SM, Nuberg I, Cedamon E, Pandit B (2016), Removing barriers to the commercialisation of agroforestry trees in Nepal, In J. Meadows, S. Harrison, and J. Herbohn, (eds), Small-scale and Community forestry and the Changing Nature of Forest Landscapes, Proceedings from the IURFO Research Group 3.08 Small-scale Forestry Conference held on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia, 11— IS October, 2015, pp 1-18

Abstract

Agroforestry has evolved as a part of the traditional subsistence farming systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. These farming systems are undergoing major changes brought about by the outmigration of male labour and resulting feminisation of the rural labour force. There has been inadequate agronomic development and serious food insecurity is a problem in Nepal. Of 75 districts, 42 have a food deficit. Most of these districts are in the mid-hills and mountain region of Nepal. Fortunately, the productive functions of trees in these agroforestry systems perform important subsistence functions of supplying firewood and fodder, and also present a resource that can be utilised to redress the trade imbalance of Nepal’s timber products. However, there are many barriers to getting these trees into the market. This paper presents two agroforestry case studies of differing situations with respect to market integration of agroforestry products. It then analyses the barriers for advancing agroforestry, and draws practical policy implications for promoting commercial agroforestry, in Nepal. The first case study describes subsistence-level agroforestry systems including: fuel and fodder trees on terrace risers sustaining a few livestock; agropastoral systems on fallow land; and silvo-fishery, apiculture and sericulture. In most areas of Nepal agroforestry has not made major advances and all these practices by and large provide productive services at subsistence level only. There are however instances where agroforestry trees are well linked into industrial wood flows. The Government of Nepal is promoting small-scale woodlots or private forests as part of an agroforestry system. Adoption of private forestry in Nepal remains very low with only about 2458 registered private forests covering an area of 2333 ha. Despite this low registration, volume of timber extracted from private land is twice that from other sources (community forest and government forest). The second case study describes a situation where trees from private land are well linked into commercial wood flows and highlights the specific institutional arrangements that have facilitated this development.

Forest Based Enterprises for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation: Implications for Community Forestry and Agroforestry Development in Nepal

Neupane R (2014) Forest Based Enterprises for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation: Implications for Community Forestry and Agroforestry Development in Nepal, In R. Mandal, S. Dhakal, and N. Hamal (eds), Proceeding of 6th Community Forestry Workshop, Lalitpur, Nepal, 16-18 June 2014, pp 336-350

Abstract
Nepal’s population (27.4 million) continues to experience high levels of poverty (25% below poverty line) owing largely to lack of economic opportunities, access to resources, weak empowerment, difficult terrain and lack of access to infrastructure. In this context, micro enterprises development has been considered a strategy to provide food security, economic opportunities and alleviate poverty. Adopting a comprehensive business development services approach the micro-enterprise development program (MEDEP), has targeted the families living below the poverty line, socially excluded. dalits and janajatis. A package consisting of entrepreneurship development, followed by market study, skills development, micro-credit, access to appropriate technology and business counseling, linkages to market and sub-contracting system have been promoted. The government of Nepal has adopted the model as micro-enterprise development for poverty alleviation (MEDPA). This paper analyzes the role of agro and forest based enterprises in securing food security, improving livelihoods and alleviating poverty in terms of its implications to the community forestry and agroforestry development in the country. The analysis is based on the review of the past studies, secondary data and qualitative enquiries through interactions, focus group discussions with relevant stakeholders and direct observation in the field. The increase in per capita income was most impressive. It was found that nearly 20% of the total micro-entrepreneurs (66,000) are forest based while 55% are agro based. The composition of the entrepreneurs consisted of 69% women, 20% dalits, and 67% youth. The enterprise development is able to create 75,000 sustainable jobs. The findings revealed that 80% of enterprises continue to do business and an average micro-entrepreneur earns over twice than what was earned before starting the enterprise. Improvements were noted in change in food sufficiency, social empowerment as well as in physical, social and financial capitals. The findings reveal that entrepreneurs need more sophisticated business skills, scaling up, product improvement, access to finance support and better linkages to viable market chains. Integrated package of services (finance, technology, inputs, marketing and business development services) with appropriate platform for buy back arrangement enhancing backward and forward linkages with private sector are found to be essential elements of successful entrepreneurship development. Though, forest (bamboo, furniture, bio-briquette, allo, chiuri and lapsi) and agro based enterprises are able to obtain substantial income, create job and cause multiplier effect, they need to ensure the use of the resources in a more judicious manner for sustainability. It is more pertinent in view of the potential scaling up of such enterprises and moving up in the value-chain systems. Thus agro and forest based enterprises development has demonstrated as an alternative model of cost effective, inclusive and gender responsive intervention of increased food security, employment creation and livelihoods leading to poverty alleviation of the poor, socially excluded and marginal section of the population.

Revenue and Employment Opportunities from Timber Management in Nepal

Paudel G, Paudel NS, Khatri DB (2014), Revenue and Employment Opportunities from Timber Management in Nepal, In R. Mandel, S. Dhakal, and N. Hamal, (eds), Proceedings of 6th National Community Forestry Workshop, Lalitpur, Nepal, 16-18 June, 2014, pp 108-120

Abstract

Community Forestry (CF) in Nepal has contributed to generating forest resources, environmental health and community livelihoods. Though scholars, practitioners and advocates of CF have shown that CF is successful in restoration of greenery and enhancing growing stock, it is equally recognized that full economic potential of CF has not been realized. However, there is little study on the precise economic potential of timber management in Nepal’s community forests. This paper assesses the total timber stock, its annual increment and total amount of allowable harvest in Nepal’s community forests. We reviewed operation plans (OPs) of 2955 community forestry user groups (CFUGs) from 14 districts across the country selected through stratified random sampling. The findings were then extrapolated to estimate market price of timber and amount of employment generation from the processing of this volume of timber. The worth of timber so extracted would be approximately Nits 27 billion at the market price. Timber management in CFs would generate about 21,000 full time jobs every year. Finally, the paper highlights the implications to policy, regulatory provisions and institutional practice to realize the economic potentials of CF in addressing poverty of forest managing communities.

Why Cannot Local Communities do Forestry Business? Analysis of Seeders in the Value Chain of Private Forestry Products in Nepal

Pandit BH (2014), Why Cannot Local Communities do Forestry Business? Analysis of Seeders in the Value Chain of Private Forestry Products in Nepal, In R. Mandel, S. Dhakal, and N. Kemal, (eds), Proceedings of 6th National Community Forestry Workshop. Lalitpur, Nepal. 16-18 June, 2014, pp 306-319

Abstract

Agroforestry (AF) has now gained renewed interest in the context of increasing need for enhancing farm-based livelihoods opportunities. As the markets for a variety of timber and non-timber forest products grow, rural communities in Nepal have the opportunity to gain cash income through private forest products value chain. Yet, there is still an absence of clear and well-defined regulatory framework to promote private forestry products. This study is based on reviews of Forest Act 1993 Forest Regulation 1995, and Private Forest Development Directives 2011 as well as recent case studies from Raymond Lamjung districts of Nepal related to the trade of forestry products. Findings demonstrate that various regulatory as well as non-regularity barriers restrict the promotion or forestry products in the market value chain, starting from nursery establishment, through cultivation, harvesting, transportation to marketing. Forestry and agroforestry products from private lands require a permit for transportation to markets within the village. However, if forestry products have to be transported outside the village it is mandatory that private individual has to obtain the permission from the District Forest Officer Farmers have to pay royalties to the forest department for cultivated products if they are transported without having registration of private forests. Although the Private Forest Development Directives 2011 has tried to make the process mere simple, the study revealed those AF products’ producers of the case study sites are constrained by a number of issues, of which obtaining private tree registration certificate and associated transportation permits from DFO is very complex and involves a lot of risks and uncertainties for marketing of their products from private lands. This analysis demonstrates that regulatory and institutional factors are crucial in determining the extent of benefits local communities can receive from the markets, than simply by the physical characteristics or the market value of the product itself. This study thus recommends several ways in which policy and regulatory practices can be improved to support fanning communities in the commercialization of agroforestry products for better livelihoods and sustainability of agroforestry landscape in Nepal.

Reframing the Farm -Forest Interface: How can Community Forestry Better Address Food Security and livelihoods in Nepal?

Paudel NS. Karki R. Paudel G, Oiha H, Shrestha KR (2014), Reframing the Farm -Forest Interface: How can Community Forestry Better Address Food Security and livelihoods in Nepal? In R. Mandel, S. Dhakal, and N. Hamal (eds), Proceedings of 6th National Community forestry workshop, Lalitpur, Nepal, 16-18 June, 2014, pp 320-335

Abstract:

Despite three decades of Community Forestry (CF) development in Nepal, studies report that CF’s actual contributions to livelihoods remain far less than the potential. Moreover, as Nepal is facing increasing food insecurity challenges, a question has emerged whether, how and to what extent CF can contribute to food security of the rural poor. Given the presence of over 18,000 community forest users groups (CFUGs) and over 1.4 million hectares of forest under CFacross the country, its potential contribution to food security has become a national policy question. Yet little evidence and analysis exists. In this context, this paper defines and characterizes the dimensions of the forest-food conundrum, and explores potential directions of policy decisions for transforming forest-ram interface to enhance CF contribution to food security.

Drawing on the evidence from textual analysis of key policy documents complemented by seven CFUGs in Kavre and Lamjung districts, this paper evaluates how regulatory regime (defined as policy and legal frameworks including how they are implemented in practice) shape the link between CF management and food security in practice. The evidence demonstrates that current regulatory regime: a) has promoted a narrow view of forest conservation that often prohibits community groups to use forest land even for food crops that can be grown with minimal ecological disturbance; b) is less-responsive to local level practical innovations and the potential to recognize, upscale and promote those innovations widely: c) is profoundly contradictory between intention and practice on the question of linking markets to forest management. Clearly, the current regime requires fundamental revision to better align CF with food security. Several opportunities for change in the regulatory regime are identified: c) revisiting the market related regulations and enforcement mechanisms to create paid employment at the village level, a) promoting field experimentation and innovation in ecologically sustainable and food-maximising forest-agriculture production system, and b) instituting mechanisms to identify and respond issues and innovations in the changing contexts.

Prospects in Marketing of Timber and Non-Timber Forest Products from Community Forestry In Nepal

Tamang DD, Shrestha SL, Dangol DS, Tamang DS (2014), Prospects in Marketing of Timber and Non-Timber Forest Products from Community Forestry in Nepal, In R. Mandal, S. Dhakal, and N. Hamal, (eds), Proceedings of 6th National Community Forestry Workshop, Lalitpur, Nepal, 16-18 June, 2014, pp 130-145

Abstract

Nepal’s national forest in general and Community Forests in particular have made impressive progress in the past three decades. These progresses are tangible in several areas such as forward looking liberal policies; framing of regulatory rules of forest management; the development of forest professionals; development of human resources at the village and community level; building capacity of community user groups; the institution of User Groups as forest managers and the rise of community pressure groups such as Federation of Forest Users Group-Nepal (FECOFUN). After thirty years of consolidation and growth in the forest sector, it is now the time to move from a primary stage of growth to a more complex secondary stage, where community members can benefit from income, jobs and community development through the commercialization of national, community and private forests in Nepal. The paper below argues for this cause based on step by step approach in improved policy, regulatory framework, institutional development, improved forest management or operational plans and developed infrastructure. These synergistic and coordinated developments, from the local to the national level, can usher commercialization of the forestry sector in the country through improved market access and outlet, thereby, facilitating mutual benefits for the community as well as the nation.